Species of Flora in Cartagena

Its area of influence and the Rosario Islands and San Bernardo National Park

In warm climates with permanent rainfall, characteristic of most of the Caribbean, grow forests of tall trees and evergreen foliage. Woody vines and epiphytes abound. In addition, a dense undergrowth teems with life. These are some of the predominant species.


Trees and shrubs that belong to the class of monocotyledons, of the orders Espacidiflora, Palmae, Arecaceae. There are over 200 genera and 3,000 species of palms in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant typically has a single, slender trunk, rarely branches. Depending on the species it may be more or less long, thick, robust, smooth, rough, covered in fibers or thorns. The particular nature of their trunks make palms extraordinarily flexible and resistant to strong winds. The fruit of these palms is the coconut.

Allamanda cathartica

A member of the Apocynacaea family and also known as the golden trumpet and yellow allamanda, this is a plant that grows in the shape of a creeper or a shrub depending on how it is pruned. It may achieve a height of up to five meters.


Boungainvillea glabra is a climbing shrub with thin stems of six to nine centimeters. Its leaves are large, oval, and rough. Small spiral stems allow it to attach itself to other branches. Its flowers come in a range of colors, from red to pink and yellow. Birds enjoy feasting on their buds.

Jungle geranium

Ixora coccinea is a shrub that may achieve the size of a tree. Its stems bear bunches of flowers that may be white or red. It flowers all year and its leaves are a deep green. They generally grow to a height of four feet and resist extreme temperatures.

Benthic algae

Clusters of algae that adhere to rocks and stones, they photosynthesize from oxygen that they produce themselves. They are the most important food producers in the ocean and the base of every marine food chain. Benthic algae have direct economic value as well through applications in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. These algae may be red, green, golden, yellow, or other colors.


Rhizophora is a genus of mangrove trees found along coasts, particularly near the mouths of rivers and lakes, muddy flatlands, marshes, estuaries, islands where there is little differentiation between high and low tide. The mangrove is an ecosystem specially adapted to saline soils and watery conditions. It is distributed geographically throughout tropical areas and is affected by tide.

Coccoloba Uvífera

Popularly known as the seagrape or baygrape, it belongs to the family Polygonaceae. Its natural habitat is beaches in the intertropical zone of the Americas and the Caribbean. It may achieve a height of four meters, but most specimens do not grow beyond two. Its large leaves are round and leathery and have a diameter of up to twenty-five centimeters. The ribbing of the leaves is pink and the entire leaf becomes reddish with age.


Heliconia is a genus that groups over 100 species of tropical plants originating in South American, Central America, the Pacific Islands, and Indonesia. It is known as the false bird-of-paradise or lobster-claw for the colorful bracts in which it wraps its flowers. These herbaceous plants can range from heights of one to seven meters. They have simple, typically alternate leaves growing opposite one another on non-woody petioles that are brighter on the underside.